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Women Empowerment and Social Development Abstract

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mpowerment of women that will have lasting impacts must involve consciousness raising before the social construction of gender, which subordinates women in the family, class, caste, religion, or society, can be changed. The economic empowerment approach has relied on improving women's control over economic resources and strengthening women's economic security.

The results also suggest that policies to raise women’s age at marriage, enhance their educations and open greater employment opportunities will also help to empower them, at least in some respects. Our goal is to cause policy, institutional and individual change that will improve the lives of women and girls everywhere.

Empowerment is a multi-faceted, multi-dimensional and multi-layered concept.Women's empowerment is a process in which women gain greater share of control over resources - material, human and intellectual like knowledge, information, ideas and financial resources like money - and access to money and control over decision-making in the home, community, society and nation, and to gain `power'. According to the Country Report of Government of India, "Empowerment means moving from a position of enforced powerlessness to one of power".

Education to women is the most powerful instrument of changing their position the society. Education also brings about reduction in inequalities and also acts as a means to improve their status within the family. In order to encourage education of women at all levels and to dilute gender bias in the provision and acquaintance of education, schools, colleges and even universities were established exclusively for women in the State. To bring more girl children, especially from marginalized BPL families, into the main stream of education, Government has been providing a package of concessions in the form of free supply of books, uniform, boarding and lodging, clothing for hostilities, mid-day meals, scholarships, free by-cycles and so on. As a result women's literacy rate has grown over the three decades and the growth of female literacy has in fact been higher than that of male literacy rate. In 1971 only 22% of Indian women were literate, by the end of 2001 54.16% female were literate.

The growth of female literacy rate is 14.87% as compared to 11.72 % of that of male literacy rate.

Women can play a major role in conservation and restoration of the environment. Rural women use unconventional and nature friendly source of energy in the form of animal dung, crop waste and fuel wood. Using of solar energy, biogas, and smokeless stoves can really help the rural women as they can act as environmental friendly tools.

Always be alert and aware of your surroundings, especially the people. Just as you would at home, walk with purpose, look and act confident Watch the crowd. Thieves prefer large crowds for pick pocketing. Besides the possibility of losing it or having it stolen, displaying expensive jewelry may send a message that you have more and may be worth robbing. Although you may consider buying and wearing a cheap wedding ring to give the impression that you have an escort. This may also help to avoid any unwanted attention from trolling men. Things to have in your bag: Flashlight, cell phone-if there is service, snack, ID, whatever over-the-counter medicines you may need and, of course, a camera to get pictures of all the great places you visit so you can show your skeptical friends when you get home.

Women have gone into the making and marketing of a range of cottage products – pickles, dried fish, organic manure, spices, agarbattis, tailoring, embroidery, etc. Backed by ITC’s marketing support, cottage products like agarbattis and chikan embroidery are emerging as profitable rural industries. Many of the micro enterprise opportunities are simple and can be started with little capital, such as broom making, basket making. Other enterprises need more capital and micro financing. The women meet together weekly to learn ways to get their new business started and successful.

When women have access and secure rights to land, they are better able to improve the lives of their families and themselves. Unfortunately, women in many poor countries do not have access to land or lack secure property rights to the land they do possess. Land rights confer direct economic benefits as a source of income, status, nutrition, and collateral for credit. Access to agricultural land can mean higher household calories and consumption. However, women may not fully participate in these benefits as members of a household if they do not share formal rights to land. Most women have access/possession of land but do not legally own it. Unmarried women they do not own major forms of property in their own right. Few women have land registered in their names.

Women’s ownership of property is governed by statutory law, customary laws and religious law. The marital status of women is also critical to owning or accessing property.

Health and well-being is a concept related to the substantial differences between women and men intheir access to sufficient nutrition, healthcare and reproductive facilities, and to issues of fundamental safety and integrity of person. According to the World Health Organization, 585,000 women die every year, over 1,600 every day, from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. The complexity of the social and cultural issues, combined with the stigma and fear of disclosure lead to a situation where only a small proportion of the crimes of sexual assault, child abuse, wife battering and gunrelated violence are ever reported, making accurate data extremely difficult to obtain.

Tamil Nadu's population growth has been stabilized and growing slowly over the years thanks to the welfare measures taken by the Government. Femalepopulation constitutes nearly half of the total population in the State. The status of women with regard to population over five decades.

I conclude that policies to raise women’s age at marriage, enhance their educations and open greater employment opportunities will also help to empower them, at least in some respects. We choose to focus particularly on women, because in every society they struggle against gender norms that limit their resources and opportunities for improvement, and because we know that women’s empowerment is a tremendous resource for social change and a broader fight against global poverty. Our goal is to cause policy, institutional and individual change that will improve the lives of women and girls everywhere.

U. Archana


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